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In haemodialysis your blood flows out of your body, round a dialysis machine and through a dialyser. The dialyser cleans your blood of waste products and then it is returned to your body. The haemodialysis process replaces the cleaning function normally carried out by healthy kidneys. It usually has to be done three times a week on alternate days.

Is there any surgery involved?

You will need a small operation to create a fistula or to insert a dialysis line. A fistula is where an artery is joined to a vein so that the vein enlarges. This enables needles to be inserted into your bloodstream for haemodialysis.

If you need dialysis before your fistula is ready, you will need a dialysis line. This is a small plastic tube put into a large vein in your neck.

How does haemodialysis work?
The tubes on the dialysis machine will be attached to your fistula or dialysis line. The tubes will be used to take blood from your body. Your blood is circulated around the dialysis machine via the pump. It then goes through the dialyser where it is cleaned. The tubes then carry the cleaned blood back into your body. Only a small amount of your blood is out of your body at any one time.

How long does it take?
It takes about 30 minutes to connect you to the dialysis machine and about 30 minutes to disconnect you at the end. You will usually dialyse for about four hours, three times a week on alternate days. Dialysis will be prescribed by your doctor according to your needs.

What can I eat and drink if I choose haemodialysis?
There is some dietary and fluid advice to follow to stop too many toxins and excess fluid from building up in your blood. The staff will advise you when you start treatment.



For a patient to be alive, to walk or be carried into the hospital and you respond more than 60 seconds after, you are inefficient, you are indolent, you are not emergency compliant and therefore you don’t worth the onion.


Pharmaceutical Society of Nigeria has warned against indiscriminate or misuse of Paracetamol, saying such practice damages the liver and kidney.

Mr Jelili Kilani, PSN Chairman, FCT Chapter, who disclosed this in an interview with the News Agency of Nigeria in Abuja emphasised that Paracetamol, an analgesic, should not be misused.

Kilani defined drug misuse as the use of drug for purposes for which it was not intended or using a drug in excessive quantities.

He further described drug abuse as an ill-wind which its effect might not manifest immediately but later in life.

The chairman, however, decried the usual practice of taking about three or more tablet of Paracetamol at once to fast track healing processes.

“By engaging in such practice, you are damaging your internal organs like the liver and kidney, which if care is not taken, such damages cannot be remedy.’’

Kilani, therefore, urged the general public to desist from misuse of Paracetamol in order to avert inflicting injury to their system.

“Misuse of drug is when somebody is tired and decides to take three or more tablet of Paracetamol simply because he wanted a quicker or higher effect.

“As good as Paracetamol is, if not properly taken, it damages the liver and kidney; the only drug that is harmless to the body is water.

“I advise the public to desist from self medication.

“If anyone is experiencing feverish condition or body pains after taking Paracetamol once and the symptoms persist, they should consult medical doctors rather than taking the drug continuously,” he said.



Are you tired of putting on deodorant and antiperspirant to cover up your smell? Do you always keep a little cologne or perfume with you? Ever wondered why some people smell more than others? Do you have any neurological symptoms that are random or you can’t seem to figure out?

Two of the major reasons why you or someone you know might smell like a used sock in a high school football locker is due to two chemical compounds called ammonia and aldehydes.

Ammonia toxicity and aldehyde toxicity are two common findings in clinical practice and both can wreak havoc on your health and not only leave you searching for a stronger deodorant, but also with physical, mental and neurological symptoms. We will cover ammonia toxicity in this article. If you are someone that can’t stand the smell of strong perfume or gets headaches when walking through the mall, you may have an aldehyde problem.

Ammonia is a normal byproduct of the digestion of fats and proteins in the body. When athletes do a hard workout they are known to have “ammonia sweat” that is often due to the breaking down of their own muscle to provide sugar to their body. Gluconeogenesis – Overproduction of cortisol due to high stress, can also lead to an overproduction of ammonia as the body breaks down tissue. These can lead to excess odor, but also to more important neurological symptoms.

Not all ammonia is bad. A healthy intestinal tract produces ammonia daily and as it reaches the blood stream it is shunted to the liver to be turned into a product called urea. The urea is put back into the blood stream and then the kidneys are supposed to dispose of the urea (which contains ammonia) in the form of urine. A problem in either the liver or the kidneys can lead to inadequate detoxification and thus a backup or excessive buildup of ammonia in the bloodstream.


Currently, most medical institutions only recognize ammonia toxicity when it shows up in blood work, but ammonia toxicity that doesn’t show up in labs is also possible. Finding someone that is familiar with functional ammonia toxicity is important. Some symptoms of functional or overt ammonia toxicity include:

  • Hyper-excitability
  • Seizures
  • Brain swelling
  • Increased brain glutamate
  • Low serotonin levels
  • HeadachesInsomnia
  • Brain fog/delirium
  • Excessive body odor


If you look at hyper-excitability, brain swelling, high glutamate, low serotonin, etc. You have a perfect picture for ADD/ADHD and Autism. Thus, in patients with these concerns, ammonia is more important than just having an excessive odor problem.

Sources of Ammonia

Water – Some public water sources use a chemical called Chloramine, which is a combination of chlorine and ammonia used to clean the water. The problem is that getting the ammonia out of the water after it has been put in is difficult.

Fast Foods Meat – About 70% of meat in America have ammonia added to it in order to kill off E. Coli, salmonella and other possibly harmful bacteria. This ammonia is then consumed and can get into your blood stream.

Dysbiosis/SIBO/Fungus – Probably the most well documented fungal infection to produce and thrive on ammonia is candida albicans. There is a normal amount of ammonia that is produced and later detoxified in the human body, but overgrowth of candida, parasites and other bad bacteria can lead to a huge increase in the production of ammonia, thus overwhelming the liver and making it impossible to detoxify all of the ammonia.


Ammonia Detox Simplified

  1. You need a healthy liver in order to detoxify ammonia from the body.

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  • If the liver is not functioning optimally and you lack certain nutrients, then the ammonia is released back into circulation to wreak havoc. (aka cause symptoms)
  1. The kidneys filter the urea from the liver before it is removed in urine.
  • Proper blood sugar levels are important to allow the kidneys to filter properly.
  1. Dysbiosis, parasites, bacteria and fungus can cause excessive production of ammonia that that body will not be able to handle until the infection is taken care of.
  • Natural yet powerful antimicrobials are important for this. The most common include Melia, Morinda, Golden Thread, BFB-1 and BFB-2. Each condition requires a specific antimicrobial.
  1. Lab testing for ammonia is limited and only seems to appear elevated if your ammonia levels are severely elevated. Also, brain levels of ammonia can be significantly higher than blood levels of ammonia.


You can now use body odor as a guide to the status of your health. While body odor isn’t an absolute sign of ammonia toxicity, if you have any foul odors, leaving your body, you know you have an underlying health imbalance that you could benefit by looking into.



The garden egg, also known as the Tegg plant is a popular and affordable fruit in Nigeria that is easily accessible to all. Solanum melongena or garden egg as we know it is a member of the aubergine family and comes in different colours but basically have the same texture.

They may be eaten raw or in sauces and stews. I have often wondered if the egg plant was a fruit or a vegetable but I came to a conclusion that it’s a fruit since its seed are found inside its fleshy body. Being curious about its benefits, I made a research on the fruit and was amazed at its Health Nuggets numerous benefits to the body. One of its benefits is its ability to relieve digestive problems and aid speedy digestion due to its high fibre content.

Studies have shown that garden eggs are very effective in blood cholesterol reduction and combat heart problems. The fruit aids weight reduction and prevents poor vision which is one of the symptoms of glaucoma. It is low in sodium, high in potassium, low in calories and very rich in dietary fibre. Its high potassium content helps in maintaining the function of the heart and regulating blood pressure while its high fibre content aids digestion and relieves constipation.

It also possesses ulcer preventive properties, making it a cheap source of natural anti-ulcer remedy. The Plant is very rich in nutrients, helps in boosting the immune system, strengthens body tissues, helps to enhance free circulation of blood and is a fruit that diabetics should cherish. The leaf of the egg plant is a very nutritious vegetable and can be used for relief of toothache and also as a snake bite remedy.

Are you having problems with digestion? Reach out for some egg plants to relieve the digestive problems. Are you trying to reduce your weight? Substitute that chocolate bar with an egg plant and eat your way to good health. Natural remedies from plants are a gift from God and leave no side effects unlike their chemical counterparts, that’s why there is a reassuring feeling when its applied. As the saying goes ‘you are what you eat’. When next you see a garden egg seller, do not hesitate to purchase the fruit and load yourself with its abundant nutrients.

I will like to hear from you. If you have had a positive result from using garden egg. Please email or if you have a recipe for cooking garden egg into healthy meal.. we will also love to hear from you.


A couple whose journey through in-vitro fertilization captivated everyone welcomed quadruplets.

Parents said they are “overwhelmed with joy” after the birth of their babies at Meridian Hospitals, 21 Igbokwe Street, D-line, Port Harcourt in Rivers State.

“Mom and babies are doing incredible!!! We are so happy with how everything turned out! The doctors, nurses, and staff were incredible!!!”


Dear Patient,

Under the health insurance scheme, you pay or your company pays the Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) on your behalf to manage your health. By paying monthly or quarterly or yearly premiums to the HMO, when you are sick, you do not have to pay the doctor out of your pocket. The HMO pays the doctor to treat you and members of your family depending on the plan that covers you. This scheme has rules and regulations, rights and privileges. It is important that you understand the rules and regulations of and your rights and privileges in the scheme to enable you know what you are entitled to at all times.

A lot of the patients (enrolees) are not getting their due and they do not know that they are not getting their entitlements because they do not know what is due to them under the scheme. Please know your rights and demand them from both your hospitals (providers) and your HMOs.

1. It is your right to understand fully your benefits as contained in the plan under which you are covered by the HMO.

2. It is your right to choose your Health Maintenance Organisation (HMO).

3. It is your right to be received promptly and treated in a friendly and efficient manner by your hospital.

4. It is your right to ask and be sure that your HMO is paying your hospital as and when due.

5. It is your right to know who your HMO officers are and to talk with them frequently and to demand explanation to the things you do not understand about the scheme.

6. It is your right to choose your provider (Hospital). If your hospital of choice is not on the list of providers and up to 25% of the employees are interested in your particular hospital, that hospital should be listed for your company.

7. It is also your right to decide if you want to change your hospital. In this instance, it is still your right to choose your new hospital. Nobody has the right to transfer you from one hospital to the other without your permission. Therefore, no HMO has the right to post you from your hospital of choice to any other one you have not chosen by yourself. It is your right to change your old hospital to another one if you are dissatisfied with the old hospital. No HMO has the right to stop you from using a hospital you are still satisfied with. The only condition you will be compelled to leave your hospital maintained through an HMO is if there has been a valid and proper execution of contract termination between the HMO and the hospital. In this case still, you exercise your right of choice for another hospital.

8. It is your right to have your medical bills in your hospital paid by your HMO to ensure your hospital is able to continue to treat you.

9. If your medical bills are not being paid as at when due, it is your right to demand explanations from the HMO and to demand compliance.

10. It is your right to be treated well at all times by your hospital of choice.

11. It is your right to be happy with your HMO and with your hospital.

NOTE: The AGPMPN offers you free information, counselling and legal aid in all matters concerning your health insurance.

Contact us at the above address and on: 08032414323 or or or

Health insurance is good when it is run well. A successful health insurance should leave the patients happy, leave the providers happy and leave the HMOs happy. To achieve this, the three partners must be committed to the scheme and there must be mutual respect, transparency and accountability.

Association of General and Private Medical Practitioners of Nigeria (AGPMPN)

No.9, Sam Shonibare Street, Lawanson, P.O. Box 776, Surulere, Lagos, Nigeria.
Tel: +2348032414323. Email:, or,

We are totally committed to the provision of excellent medical services
applying environmentally friendly techniques, operating in clean, standard,
safe and secure locations.


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